Three Angel's Messages shared with the world

Trumpet #1: The Jewish Nation Loses Its Homeland

Revelation Time Period #1:
31 AD to 217 AD

Revelation 8:7 "The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up."

When looking for meanings of the symbols used in prophecy, the first place to look for answers is within the same book of the Bible, in this case Revelation. Then, the rest of the Bible, especially other prophetic books like Daniel, are examined to find the answers. In the case of this First Trumpet, we can find many references in the Old Testament to the symbols that are used.

The 1st angel sounded God's church (angel/messenger - see Revelation 1:20 and 12:1) sounds the warning message to God's rebelling people to repent, and to God's faithful people to escape the judgment. This first Trumpet time period corresponds to the time period of the 1st Church, Ephesus.

Hail, Fire and Blood Hail is used in the Old Testament to represent judgments from God (Job 38:22-23, Ps. 18:13, Is. 28:2). Fire also represents God's wrath and symbolizes destruction (Jer. 21:8-14, Ez. 21:31-32, Job 31:12). Blood symbolizes death (Lev. 17:11, Deut. 12:23, Jer. 18:21). God used these symbols in a prophecy describing judgments on Gog for invading Israel: "And I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood; and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many people that are with him, an overflowing rain, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone" (Ezekiel 38:22). In using the symbols of hail, fire and blood, the first Trumpet immediately establishes the Trumpets as being judgments that result in destruction.

Third Part The First Trumpet, as well as others, affect a third part, which is a significant portion, but not the whole. Similarly, Ezekiel prophesied of the destructive judgments to be brought upon Jerusalem, which were divided into thirds (Ez. 5:12).

Trees Trees are often used in the Bible to symbolize people (Is. 61:3, Ps. 1:3, Judges 9:8-9, Ez. 17:24, Dan. 4:10,22). Jeremiah describes the fruit-bearing and flourishing trees planted near a river as like the righteous who constantly drink the water of life through faith in Jesus and study of His word. "Blessed is the man that trusteth in the LORD, and whose hope the LORD is. For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, and that spreadeth out her roots by the river, and shall not see when heat cometh, but her leaf shall be green; and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit" (Jeremiah 17:7-8).

The Fifth Trumpet also refers to trees and connects them to men. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads" (Revelation 9:4).

The burning of trees was foretold a number of times in the Old Testament. Though God's people were described as healthy trees, the time came when Ezekiel portrayed the Israelites as trees that had become fuel for the fire. He prophesied that the inhabitants of Jerusalem were to be given to the fire.

"Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; As the vine tree among the trees of the forest, which I have given to the fire for fuel, so will I give the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And I will set my face against them; they shall go out from one fire, and another fire shall devour them; and ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I set my face against them. And I will make the land desolate, because they have committed a trespass, saith the Lord GOD" (Ezekiel 15:6-8).

Other prophets also portrayed the Israelites as trees being burned at different times in their history.

"The LORD called thy name, A green olive tree, fair, and of goodly fruit: with the noise of a great tumult he hath kindled fire upon it, and the branches of it are broken. For the LORD of hosts, that planted thee, hath pronounced evil against thee, for the evil of the house of Israel and of the house of Judah, which they have done against themselves to provoke me to anger in offering incense unto Baal." (Jeremiah 11:16-17).

"For wickedness burneth as the fire: it shall devour the briers and thorns, and shall kindle in the thickets of the forest, and they shall mount up like the lifting up of smoke. Through the wrath of the LORD of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire: no man shall spare his brother" (Isaiah 9:18-19).

"Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Son of man, set thy face toward the south, and drop thy word toward the south, and prophesy against the forest of the south field; And say to the forest of the south, Hear the word of the LORD; Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will kindle a fire in thee, and it shall devour every green tree in thee, and every dry tree: the flaming flame shall not be quenched, and all faces from the south to the north shall be burned therein" (Ezekiel 20:45-47).

In the Gospel of Luke, John the Baptist declared that the time had come when the trees (representing the Jewish nation) would be cut down and cast into the fire because they were not bringing forth fruit and would not repent. "And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire" (Luke 3:9).

Jesus also foretold of the pending disaster in Judea, the destruction of Jerusalem and the resulting captivity and dispersion of the Israelites.

"And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people. And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled" (Luke 21:20-24).

These events are not something that God wanted to happen. Nor does He remove His protection easily or quickly. In fact, Jesus agonized and wept over Jerusalem and likened its people to chicks that He wanted to gather under Him like a mother hen. He knew what was in store for the Israelites if they would continue to ignore the warnings, and He did everything possible to help them. "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate" (Matthew 23:37-38).

"And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it, Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation" (Luke 19:41-44) (see also Matt. 24:2, Micah 3:12).

Jesus' deep emotion and tender care for Israel was also made apparent when He was on the way to the cross. There were many women following the procession who were moved with pity and were wailing for Him. Jesus, seeing ahead to the time of Jerusalem's destruction, was not thinking of His own sufferings, but was thinking of the womens' future and had pity for them. He tried to warn them, likening Himself to a green tree, innocent and righteous and letting them know that what was being done to Him would be an even worse experience for a dry tree.

"But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?" (Luke 23:28-31).

The prophecy in Daniel 9 foretells the exact date when the nation of Israel sealed its rejection of the gospel and forfeited its position as God's chosen representatives to the world. The chapter states that seventy weeks were given to Daniel's people (the Israelites), during which they would rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, and in the last week the Messiah would conduct His ministry, be put to death and the covenant confirmed. After the allotted time was over, if the Jews still rejected Him, then the city and sanctuary would be destroyed and there would be wars and destruction.

The seventy weeks began with the decree to rebuild Jerusalem (Dan. 9:25), which occurred in 457 BC, by King Artexerxes. When applying the day equals a year principle for prophetic time period interpretation, sixty nine weeks equals 483 years and takes us down to 27 AD. It was that exact year when Jesus Christ began His ministry when baptized by John in the Jordan river. Three and a half years later Christ was killed on the cross bringing the need for sacrifices to and end as He fulfilled the ceremonial symbolism (Dan. 9:26-27 - Messiah is cut off, but not for Himself, and in the midst of the week He causes sacrifice to cease). Christ and His apostles focused on taking the gospel message to the Jewish nation from 27 AD until the year 34 AD (Dan. 9:27 - He confirmed the covenant for one week). At the end of those seven years, the leaders in Jerusalem rejected the appeal by Stephen and stoned him to death. After this, the gospel went to the Gentiles and the nation of Israel was no longer a nation given a special status by God. Individual Jews are entitled to salvation just like anyone else who accepts the gospel message, but the Israelites as a nation were no longer the chosen instrument of God to disseminate His truth to the world.

With this background of the Israelites being prophetically portrayed as trees being given to the fire, Luke saying that the time had come when they were to be cut down and given to the fire, Jesus warning of the pending suffering of dry trees, destruction of Jerusalem and resulting captivity, and prophecy pinpointing the date of 34 AD as the sealing of their rejection of the gospel, the situation reveals that the time of the First Trumpet was at hand. The trees were now to be burned, meaning that the Jewish nation was to be reluctantly given over into the hands of their enemies.

Thus, we can expect that during this time period of the First Trumpet, there would be much trial, destruction and death upon the Jews. This situation would also characterize the political environment within the Roman Empire during the time the Roman Senate was the dominant political influence in the Roman Empire (168 BC to 217 A.D.). The blasphemy and cruelty of the Romans, and the persistent refusal of the Jews (who were part of the Roman Empire), to submit to the authority of the Romans caused revolts and wars. It was a time of turmoil and afflictions, not only for the Jews, but for the Senate, Roman rulers, army and other inhabitants of the land.

Let's now look at the relationship between the Jews and Rome in history. The Jews had become inhabitants of the Roman realm in 63 BC when Judaea became a client kingdom of Rome as general Pompey subdued Judaea. In the first century AD, tensions began to escalate. In 40 AD, emperor Caligula proclaimed himself divine, demanding everyone worship him and tried to place a statue of himself in the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. The emperor also stated concerns about the potential threat of the Jews. Other observers commented that the Jew's society seemed to start to unravel causing internal dissensions and terrorism.1 The Bible also refers to a difficult time for the Jews "because that [emperor] Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome" (Acts 18:2).

By 66 AD, the Jews had in fact became the "most persistent internal source of military challenge" to the Romans.2 At that time, during the reign of Nero, a Jewish uprising occurred. Nero wanted to be worshiped as a god. Roman troops killed three thousand six hundred Jews, which launched a cycle of increasing violence. The Jewish army defeated Rome's 12th Legion, killing the entire rear guard. A successful ambush by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon shocked the Roman leadership, in which 6000 Roman troops were killed and many more wounded.

These events led to more battles as Roman troops began to gain control of the countryside around Jerusalem. Galilee was subdued in 67 and Transjordanian lands in 68. Titus finally sacked Jerusalem in 70 AD. It was a violent and tragic event that punctuates the violence experienced by the Jews during this time period.

The most significant military campaign undertaken during the Flavian period, was the siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. by Titus. The destruction of the city was the culmination of the Roman campaign in Judeae following the Jewish uprising of 66. The Second Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory. Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon Bar Giora and John of Gischala. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as there is 'no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God.'3

As predicted in Daniel's prophecy, the Jew's sanctuary and city were indeed destroyed.

Grass The dwelling place of the trees. In addition to a third of the trees burning in this prophecy, all of the grass burns. Grass can also symbolize people, specifically that people can have little power, are vulnerable and can fade quickly off the scene (Is. 37:27, 40:6-8, Ps. 37:2, 103:15, 2 Ki. 19:26, James 1:10-11, 1 Pet. 1:24). However, since all of the grass burns, but only a third of the trees burn, there must be a different meaning for the two symbols. Another possibility stems from the word translated to grass in Revelation 8:7 (Greek=chortos), which means a court or garden, like a field or pasture with vegetation. Grass would then be symbolizing a place where the trees dwell. Isaiah pictures God's people as trees growing among the grass: "And they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the water courses" (Isaiah 44:4). Ezekiel also describes people as trees in the field being nourished by the rivers: "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs. The waters made him great, the deep set him up on high with her rivers running round about his plants, and sent out her little rivers unto all the trees of the field" (Eze. 31:3-4).

With the trees representing Jewish people, the grass would represent their dwelling place, the homeland of the Jews. Indeed, not only were the sanctuary and Jerusalem completely destroyed, but the surrounding towns were desolated. The Roman generals weren't only after Jerusalem, they determined to overrun the whole area. The Jews' homeland was destroyed (all the grass), yet many Jews survived (two thirds of the trees), and found refuge especially in Parthia. Remember that Jesus included not only those in Jerusalem, but also those in Judaea, when he warned them to flee.

"And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people. And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled" (Luke 21:20-24).

The destruction of the Jewish homeland was also prophesied long before Christ: "The LORD shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand; A nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old, nor shew favour to the young: And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy land, until thou be destroyed: which also shall not leave thee either corn, wine, or oil, or the increase of thy kine, or flocks of thy sheep, until he have destroyed thee. And he shall besiege thee in all thy gates, until thy high and fenced walls come down, wherein thou trustedst, throughout all thy land: and he shall besiege thee in all thy gates throughout all thy land, which the LORD thy God hath given thee. And thou shalt eat the fruit of thine own body, the flesh of thy sons and of thy daughters, which the LORD thy God hath given thee, in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee" (Deut. 28:49-52).

The destruction of Jerusalem was a dramatic event for the Jews all over the world. They had depended on it in order to observe the yearly festivals. But, this event was by no means the end of the matter. Titus even went on to depict the Jewish religion as "not worthy to exist."5 These events inflamed resentment not only throughout the Roman Empire, but in the rest of the diaspora in neighboring countries. Many Jews were forced to become gladiators and slaves, and Vespasian, being credited with building the Colosseum, mostly used Jewish labor to complete the project.6 The Romans aimed to subjugate the entire land of Israel. Thus, threats and revolts continued by the Jews, and suppression and harassment continued by the Romans.

In the year 116 AD, the Jews of the eastern Mediterranean revolted and were violently suppressed. Jewish resistance to Roman dominion had became common throughout the various provinces. It was during this time that the Rabbi Akiba sought to inspire the dispersed of Israel throughout all countries to rise up and join together in a holy war.7 Revolts broke out throughout Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. Rebel forces contained Jews as well as malcontents in general and others opposed to the Romans. The threat to Rome was formidable and hundreds of thousands of Roman citizens were slaughtered by the Jewish rebels.

The revolt occurred when emperor Trajan was on an expedition against Parthia. He underestimated the strength of the insurgency as "the new provinces had risen in revolt, and so had the Jews in a vast arc from Cyrene to Mesopotamia, with catastrophic results in Cyrene, Egypt and Cyprus.8 The force and extent of the rebellions were instrumental in causing Trajan to withdraw from Parthia. Historians note the possibility that the riots were organized in response to Trajan's invasion.9 Cary and Scullard's book, A History of Rome, states that the rebellion in Judaea that endangered Trajan's rear, "had no doubt been prearranged with the Parthian king" and "these insurrections were the result of a concerted plot in which the Jews of the Dispersion co-operated with those of Palestine."10

Again in 132 AD, the Jews revolted in Palestine under the leadership of Simon Barcochebas, who was acclaimed as a Messiah. The Jews took over fifty fortified cities and nine hundred and thirty-five open towns, plus, they took back Jerusalem.11 The Roman army starved out one district after another, finally subduing the country in 135 AD. Though Roman victory was eventually won, Rome experienced considerable losses. The fighting lasted for three years, during which 580,000 Jews were killed.

This further dispersed the Jews throughout the world as they were prohibited from setting foot in Jerusalem under penalty of death. Emperor Hadrian went to great lengths to eliminate the Jewish presence in Judea. "By destroying the association of Jews to Judea and forbidding the practice of Jewish faith, Hadrian aimed to root out a nation that inflicted heavy casualties on the Roman Empire."12 Thus, the affliction continued as Judaic scholars were executed, sacred writings burned, and many Jews were forced to become slaves. The name of Jerusalem officially ceased in 130 AD, and later the province was renamed Syria Palaestina as in the eyes of Rome "the Jews had ceased to exist as a nation in their own land."13 There was never a time prior had "so determined a war of extirpation been waged against the Jewish nation and religion."14

It is indeed almost impossible to realize the desolation of the land. To the Roman legions it had from the first been a war of extermination against the Jews of Palestine, and all subsequent measures taken by the government were in accordance with this view. Everywhere the country had been laid waste, and with a ruthlessness for which no plea can be assigned but that of exasperation - not only were cities razed, and hamlets burnt down, but even the fruit-trees and vines were destroyed. Galilee, once so renowned for its production of oil, had at the termination of the war scarcely an olive-tree left... What of the city of Jerusalem had formerly risen from its ashes was again levelled with the ground.15

This third major Roman-Jewish war devastated the Jew's homeland, forcing a shift of focus of religious, cultural and political life to the Babylonian community.

Modern historians have come to view the Bar-Kokhba Revolt as being of decisive historic importance. The massive destruction and loss of life occasioned by the revolt has led some scholars to date the beginning of the Jewish diaspora from this date. They note that, unlike the aftermath of the First Jewish-Roman War chronicled by Josephus, the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery after the Bar-Kokhba Revolt, and Jewish religious and political authority was suppressed far more brutally.16

Throughout this time period of Roman suppression of the Jews, especially after the destruction of Jerusalem, many fled to the Babylonian community and other destinations in the Parthian Empire, which allowed considerable religious freedom and already contained large Jewish communities. Outside of their homeland, the area of Babylon was one of the most important centers of Judaism. The Parthian rulers not only allowed the Jews to worship as they pleased, they were also very protective of the Jews, and in return, the Jews were willing to fight for Parthia.17

Under their [Parthian] government the Jews enjoyed not only liberty and peace, but even a kind of independence. This is the more remarkable, as the same benefits were not extended to their Greek and Syrian subjects... Some towns in Parthia were almost wholly held by Jews. Thus the cities of Nahardea and Nisibis - afterwards so celebrated for their colleges - were fortified and almost exclusively occupied by Jews who there deposited the annual tribute for the temple, which was sent to Jerusalem under a strong escort.18

Vast numbers of Israelities lived in Parthian lands, even holding positions of power. Josephus refers to two tribes subject to the Romans, and then the "immense multitude... not to be estimated by numbers" of Israelites beyond the Euphrates who were not subject to the Romans.19 The Euphrates River was the recognized border between the Roman and Parthian Empires at the time of Josephus.

The Jews have a long history of being in Persia (Parthia). They were first taken captive to Babylon in 597 BC by Nebuchadnezzar. Daniel and other Israelites were given high positions of authority in the Empire. When Cyrus the Great gave permission to return to Judea, many returned, but even more stayed in Babylon and surrounding areas. The story of Esther also reveals Israelites in positions of leadership, as well as large numbers of Jews living in Persia. The large numbers of Israelites did not just disappear, they remained in the land of Babylon, which eventually became Parthia. Jews flourished and multiplied there.20

In the book Parthia: The Forgotten Ancient Superpower and Its Role In Biblical History, Steven Collins combs through historial evidence, showing that the Parthian Empire was largely made up of Israelite tribes and that the ruling Arsacid dynasty were descendants of Phares and King David.21 Remarkably, the Arsacids ruled in Parthia for almost five centuries. He outlines cities within Parthia with Hebrew names, including the capital city named after Isaac. Other links are made by the Hebrew-Semitic words found in the Parthian language, Semitic inscriptions on their coins, historical similarities, clan names, Biblical references, and other sources. He asserts that "the Parthian Empire was dominated by the reunited and revitalized tribes of Israel ruling over native populations who had previously been Israel's captors."22

While Parthia was strong and sympathetic, the Jews had a place to flee, regroup and foment more rebellion. In fact, the Jews in Palestine "turned to Parthia for liberation."23 The Jews were "accustomed in Jerusalem from early times to look to the East for help, and aware, as the Roman procurator Petronius was, that the Jews of Babylon could render effectual assistance, Babylonia [in Parthia] became with the fall of Jerusalem the very bulwark of Judaism."24

Parthia was the second greatest power in the world next to Rome.25 Along with the internal problem of the Jews, Parthia became a "special problem" to Rome, and even when Rome won battles, "the cost was greater than their winnings."26

The struggle between Rome and Parthia ended in 217 AD when they had their final battle. The Romans, under emperor Caracalla, had won some key victories. However, Caracalla was assassinated and his successor, Macrinus (the first emperor not of senatorial rank), took over the fight with the Parthians at Nisibis and negotiated a peace treaty. Inspite of the treaty, the battles had so weakened the Parthian empire that one of their vassals was able to successfully revolt.27 The vassal, known as the Sassanids, began to subjugate surrounding territories and by 224 AD defeated the last Parthian king, Artabanus, of the dynasty of the Arsacidae.

With the last Roman-Parthian war that led to the crumbling of the Parthian Empire, the Jews lost the support they had under the Parthian kings and an era of revolt was brought to an end. This coincides with Macrinus' take-over of the crown and putting an end to the last Roman-Parthian war.

Linking the 1st Trumpet and 1st Head

When Macrinus successfully carried out a plot to become the first equestrian emperor and put an end to the last Roman-Partian war, it brought an end to the era of Senate dominance over the crown and an end to the era of wars with Parthia and Jewish revolts. The same event brought both the time period of Head #1 and the 1st Trumpet to a close. Learn more about "Linking the 7 Trumpets to the 7 Heads".


Trumpet #1 = The Jewish nation loses homeland (31 to 217 AD). Judgments of destruction / death ("hail", "fire", "blood") affected the Roman realm. A portion ("third") of the people ("trees" - Is. 61:3, Ez. 17:24, Jer. 17:7-8) of the Jewish nation were destroyed ("burned" as Jesus predicted - Lk. 3:9, 21:20-24, 23:28-31, Ez. 15:6-8, Jer. 11:16-17, Is. 9:18-19, Ez. 20:45-47). The Jewish homeland ("grass," Greek=court/garden, the place where the trees dwell - Is. 44:4) was desolated. Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD (est. one million killed). Jews continued revolts for many years while finding refuge in the Parthian Empire, which protected them until its last war with Rome in 217 AD. In 116 AD the Jews killed hundreds of thousands of Roman citizens. In an attempt to take back Jerusalem in 132 AD, 580,000 Jews were killed. They became so despised that Roman Emperors vowed to wipe out the Jewish race and religion.

Continue to: Trumpet #2
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  • 3. "Flavian dynasty", New World Encyclopedia,
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  • 5. Rome and Jerusalem, page 423.
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  • 8. Rome's Wars in Parthia, Rose Mary Sheldon, page 143).
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  • 11. (History of the Jewish Nation, page 219).
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  • 19. Antiquities of the Jews, Flavius Josephus, Book XI, Chapter V, Verse 2
  • 20. The Parthians, Malcolm A.R. Colledge, page 108).
  • 21. Parthia: The Forgotten Ancient Superpower and Its Role In Biblical History, Steven M. Collines, page 32).
  • 22. Parthia: The Forgotten Ancient Superpower and Its Role In Biblical History, Steven M. Collines, page 61).
  • 23. Rome's Wars in Parthia, Rose Mary Sheldon, Page 43).
  • 24. History of the Jews in Iran, Wikipedia, last modified 7 July 2016, (
  • 25. The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, George Rawlinson, page 428).
  • 26. Rome's Wars in Parthia, Rose Mary Sheldon, page 222).
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