Daniel 11:1-39...continued from Daniel 10
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Dan 11:1KJV: "Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him."
Darius the Mede refers to Cyaxares II, who was an uncle to Cyrus the Great and son of Astyages. Cyrus conquered Babylon in 539 BC at which point Cyaxares II became its king. In about 537, Cyaxares II gave his daughter in marriage to Cyrus and the Median kingdom as her dowry, thus further cementing the merged Median and Persian kingdoms. Cyaxares II, under the throne name of Darius, died about 537, and Cyrus then fully took the throne. The reference to Darius the Mede differentiates this Darius from Darius the Persian who ruled after Cyrus.
Realm #2: Medo Persia (539 to 331 BC)
Realm #2: Medo Persia (539 to 331 BC)
535 - 465 BC (kings of Persia)
Daniel 11:2KJV: And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
NASB: "And now I will tell you the truth. Behold, three more kings are going to arise in Persia. Then a fourth will gain far more riches than all of them; as soon as he becomes strong through his riches, he will arouse the whole empire against the realm of Greece."
Chapter 11 builds on the prophecy of Daniel 8. Just like in Daniel's vision in chapter 8, the realms of Medo-Persia and Greece are named, leaving no doubt as to the starting point of this vision. Note: Unlike the visions in Daniel 2 and 7, Babylon (the 1st realm) had already been replaced by Persia at the time of this vision, so no mention is made of it.
King Cyrus reigned when the vision was given. He was followed by:
1st King = Cambyses II (530-522 BC)
2nd King = Bardiya/Smerdis (522 BC) (Smerdis was an usurper)
3rd King = Darius I (521-485 BC) (522-486) (same as Darius Hystaspes, son of Hystaspes)
4th King = Xerxes I (486-465 BC) (the rich 4th King) (also called Ahasuerus)
Xerxes, the fourth king, was very wealthy ("far richer"). He becomes far more rich "than all of them", referring back to the three other kings. He gathered support as he stockpiled supplies for four years while assembling his army, which had contingents from 40 nations ("stir up all"). They all marched together, against Greece, but were defeated. This was Xerxes, the same as king Ahasuerus of Queen Esther's time (Esther 1:4-7). He ruled when the empire's territory was at its greatest extent. Note: Some interpretations leave out Smerdis, who was a usurper, and identify Artaxerxes I (reigned 465-424 BC) as the rich 4th King. However, it was Xerxes I, not Artaxerxes I, who assembled a multi-national army ("he shall stir up all").
465 - 336 BC (Skipped)Xerxes was the last Persian king who invaded Greece. The defeat of Persia by Greece gives us a clue to look for Greece to arrive as next power. Thus, the prophecy now skips over the next 9 Persian rulers: Artaxerxes I (465-424), Xerxes II (424), Sogdianus (424-423), Darius II (424-404), Artaxerxes II (404-358), Artaxerxes III (358-338), Artaxerxes IV (338-336), Darius III (336-330) and Artaxerxes V (330-329).
Daniel saw that Greece would replace Medo Persia in a previous prophecy (Daniel 8:20-21).
Realm #3: Greece (331 to 168 BC)
Realm #3: Greece (331 to 168 BC)
336 - 323 BC (Alexander the Great)
Daniel 11:3KJV: And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
Parallel Prophecies: The great horn on the goat (Dan. 8:21). "And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king [Alexander the Great]" (Dan. 8:21)
323 - 305 BC (Dividing of Greece)
Daniel 11:4KJV: And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
NASB®: But as soon as he has arisen, his kingdom will be broken up and parceled out toward the four points of the compass, though not to his own descendants, nor according to his authority which he wielded, for his sovereignty will be uprooted and given to others besides them.
- Greece (Macedonia) (Cassander, a nobleman and son of Alexander's General Antipater)
- Asia Minor (Thrace,Macedon) (Lysimachus, held a prominent position in Alexander's circle and was his immediate bodyguard)
- Syria (Persian Empire, part of Asia Minor, Northern Syria, Mesopotamia, the east) (Seleucus I, one of Alexander's Generals)
- Egypt (Palestine and parts of Syria) (Ptolemy I, one of Alexander's Generals)
305 - 283 BC
Daniel 11:5KJV: And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
Seleucus I served as an admiral under Ptolemy I in 314 BC (he was "one of his princes"), fighting together against other Diadochi. Seleucus had great success and went on to gain territory. The four powers were allied together to defeat other threats and when they defeated Antigonus I in 301 BC at the Battle of Ipsus, Ptolemy I took control of the Coele-Syria region (southern Syria or Lebanon, Syria and Israel). However, the other alliance members assigned all of Syria to Seleucus. The question of ownership of the region resulted in an ongoing war between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties. However, Seleucus I, who had gained power through the help of Ptolemy I, did not take military action to reclaim the region. Once both were dead their successors began a long series of wars. Thus, Ptolemy was strong, but Seleucus became stronger and established the Seleucid Empire. Verse 5 begins the description of the intrigues between the King of the North (Seleucids - Syria) and the King of the South (Ptolemies - Egypt).
283 - 246 BC
Daniel 11:6KJV: And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
246 - 225 BC
Daniel 11:7-9KJV: 7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
NASB®: 9 Then the latter will enter the realm of the king of the South, but will return to his own land.
After Ptolemy returned to Egypt, Seleucus II recovered Northern Syria and the nearer provinces of Iran.
225 - 217 BC (fourth Syrian war)
Daniel 11:10KJV: But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.
NASB®: His sons will mobilize and assemble a multitude of great forces; and one of them will keep on coming and overflow and pass through, that he may again wage war up to his very fortress.
Daniel 11:11KJV: And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
Daniel 11:12KJV: And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
NASB®: "When the multitude is carried away, his heart will be lifted up, and he will cause tens of thousands to fall; yet he will not prevail.
204-181 BC (fifth Syrian war)
Daniel 11:13KJV: For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
NASB®: For the king of the North will again raise a greater multitude than the former, and after an interval of some years he will press on with a great army and much equipment.
206 -185 BC
Daniel 11:14KJV: And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
NASB®: "Now in those times many will rise up against the king of the South; the violent ones among your people will also lift themselves up in order to fulfill the vision, but they will fall down.
NLT: At that time there will be a general uprising against the king of the south. Violent men among your own people will join them in fulfillment of this vision, but they will not succeed.
180-168 BC (sixth Syrian war)
Daniel 11:15KJV: So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.
NASB®: Then the king of the North will come, cast up a siege ramp and capture a well-fortified city; and the forces of the South will not stand their ground, not even their choicest troops, for there will be no strength to make a stand.
Daniel 11:16KJV: But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.
NASB®: But he who comes against him will do as he pleases, and no one will be able to withstand him; he will also stay for a time in the Beautiful Land, with destruction in his hand.
NLT: The king of the north will march onward unopposed; none will be able to stop him. He will pause in the glorious land of Israel,[d] intent on destroying it.
Rome ("he that cometh against him") is described in this verse as the one coming against Antiochus that no one can stand up to ("none shall stand before him"). Paullus was military leader and consul in 168 BC, representing the Roman Senate. In other words: "But he [Paullus] that cometh against him [Antiochus IV] shall do according to his [Paullus'] will, and none shall stand before him [Paullus]: and he [Antiochus IV] shall stand in the glorious land [Judea], which by his [Antiochus IV's] hand shall be consumed."
After complying with the Roman Senate's orders, Antiochus IV (reigned 175-164 BC) returned north from Egypt. On the way he stopped at Jerusalem ("glorious land"), which had been under Seleucid rule since around 200 BC. He sided with the Hellenized Jewish faction, outlawed Jewish religious rites and ordered the worship of Zeus. The Jews refused and Antiochus killed many Jews and destroyed the city of Jerusalem ("consumed").
Note: Rome also would "stand in the glorious land", in 63 BC, and would destroy it in the 1st-2nd century AD. The timing seems to fit better with the destruction by Antiochus IV, which occurred at the same time as the other events in this verse, rather than the Roman destruction that would occur more than 2 centuries later.
The defeat of the Greeks by the Romans gives us the clue that the focus will now shift from Greece to Rome. Also, from verse 16 through 24, the KOS is not mentioned. This indicates that we are no longer in the time of divided Greece, nor in the time of divided Rome. This is the time when Rome ruled centrally, so there was no king of the south or north because there were no divisions in the realm.
Realm #4: Rome (168 BC to Second Coming)
Realm #4: Rome (168 BC to Second Coming)
168 - 101 BC
Daniel 11:17KJV: He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
NASB®: 17 "He will set his face to come with the power of his whole kingdom, bringing with him a proposal of peace which he will put into effect; he will also give him the daughter of women to ruin it. But she will not take a stand for him or be on his side.
NLT: He will make plans to come with the might of his entire kingdom and will form an alliance with the king of the south. He will give him a daughter in marriage in order to overthrow the kingdom from within, but his plan will fail.
Parallel Prophecies: This begins the period matching the description of the little horn in Daniel 8:9 where Rome waxes great toward the south (Carthage and Northern Africa in 146 BC) (Dan. 11:17), east (Greece and Syria in 65 BC) (Dan. 11:18-19) and pleasant land (Judea in Ps. 106:21-25, Jews lost independence and became a client kingdom of Rome in 63 BC when General Pompey captured Jerusalem) (Dan. 11:20).
120 - 44 BC (Mithridatic Wars, Pompey)
Daniel 11:18-19KJV: 18 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. 19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
NASB®: 18 Then he will turn his face to the coastlands and capture many. But a commander will put a stop to his scorn against him; moreover, he will repay him for his scorn.
NLT: 19 He will take refuge in his own fortresses but will stumble and fall and be seen no more.
In 60 BC, Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance (triumvirate) that dominated Roman politics for several years. But, when Pompey's wife died (54 BC), who was Caesar's daughter, and Crassus died in battle (53 BC), it broke the links between Pompey and Caesar ("a prince for his own behalf"). The triumvirate disintegrated into infighting. Subsequent events led Pompey to become scornful of Caesar's power. But, Julius came out victor in the Great Civil War (49-45 BC) ("cause the reproach...to cease") and ("cause it to turn upon him [Pompey]"). Pompey fled to Egypt, hoping that his former client, King Ptolemy, would help him. But the Egyptian king didn't want to offend the victorious Caesar. When Pompey left his ship to come ashore at Pelusium, he was stabbed and killed by one of Ptolemy's officers in 48 BC ("he shall stumble and fall"). Note: Pompey's supporters continued the war until 45 BC went Julius defeated them. In 44 BC, Julius was named "dictator in perpetuity," after which he was quickly assassinated.
See map of the Roman realm in 44 BC
See map of the Expansion of the Roman Republic
44 BC - 14 AD (Caesar Augustus)
Daniel 11:20KJV: Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
9 AD - 37 AD (Tiberius, Battle of the Teutoburg, death of Jesus)
Daniel 11:21KJV: And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
NASB®: In his place a despicable person will arise, on whom the honor of kingship has not been conferred, but he will come in a time of tranquility and seize the kingdom by intrigue.
Daniel 11:22KJV: And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.
NASB®: The overflowing forces will be flooded away before him and shattered, and also the prince of the covenant.
Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals. From 12 to 6 BC, he successfully campaigned in Pannonia, Germania, Dalmatia and Raetia. In 6 AD, Tiberius and Quaestor Legatus Germanicus led a campaign against a major revolt in Illyricum, which lasted for nearly four years. During the campaign, in 9 AD, the Roman legions under Varus met a force of Germanic tribes at the Battle of the Teutoburg. Historians emphasize the profound consequences of this battle as changing the course of world history. At the time, Varus was named Legatus Augusti pro praetore and led three of the Roman legions in the southern part of Illyricum, and Arminius was a Roman military leader in command of Germanic auxiliary forces for Rome. As a boy, Arminius had been given as tribute by a Germanic tribal leader to Rome to be raised by the Romans. As he learned of abuses in Roman treatment of Germans and their plans to violate treaties and subjugate Germania, he began laying plans of betrayal. He secretly warned the tribal leaders and planned a brilliant and well-planned ambush. Arminius sent word to Varus of a revolt in the Rhine area. Varus went to help put down the revolt, but instead found himself and his armies in an indefensible position. The Romans were massacred and lost three full legions ("overflown from before him... and broken"). The Germans went on to clean out all Roman forts, garrisons and cities east of the Rhine. It stunned the Roman world. Germania, no longer a Roman province, remained free from then on. After Tiberius became emperor, he sent back his armies for revenge, in 14 AD, raiding, killing and devastating the land. They then withdrew back across the Rhine. Rome never again attempted to completely conquer the Germanic territories east of the Rhine river. Historians have labeled this battle as Rome's greatest defeat. (Note: In 117 AD, emperor Trajan gained a corner of Germania, which was later lost in the 270s under emperor Aurelius. After that, the Germanic tribes were increasingly integrated into the Roman world and eventually took outright control of the military and a divided realm.)
See map of the Roman Empire borders at the Rhine River
Learn more about the history of Germania
Jesus Christ ("prince of the covenant") died on the cross ("broken") in 31 AD under the Romans during the reign of Tiberius (emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD) (Luke 3:1).
Note: The reference to the overflowing flood is similar to the wording in Daniel 9:26, which refers to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD and links it to Jesus' death. This is reasonable and could be the case. But, based on the verse's order and wording, and since Tiberius was no longer alive in 70 AD, the arms of a flood seem more likely to be referring to the destruction of Tiberius' forces in 9 AD.
31 AD - 486 AD (Skipped)Verse 23 now transitions to a new power and time period. We are provided clues to stay on track by looking at the precedents of Greece and Daniel's parallel prophecies:
- 1. A defeat can signal a new era - In verse 2, when Greece defeated the Persians, it gave us a clue to look for Greece to arrive as the next power in verse 3 as it skipped over the next 9 Persian rulers to the time when Greece became the dominant realm in 331 BC. This established a precedent, that is also used here in verse 22 and 23. The defeat of Rome by the Germanic tribes in verse 22 clue us to look for the next phase of the Roman realm when it would come under the command of the Germanic tribes. Thus, the narrative skips over the rest of the Imperial Roman rulers to the time when it divided into 10 decentralized germanic kingdoms in 486 AD. This was previously prophesied in Daniel 2 and 7, by the 10 toes and 10 horns, symbolizing that Rome would become a decentralized, or divided, realm.
- 2. Parallel prophecies are consistent - This prophecy follows right along with Daniel's previous prophecies. We've seen an order of realms established repeatedly of (1) Babylon, (2) Medo-Persia, (3) Greece, and (4) Rome, which becomes Divided Rome ruled politically by the 10 tribes (486 AD to Second Coming) and ruled ecclesiastically by the papacy (538-1798 AD). This prophecy in Daniel 11 is no different as it parallels the other prophecies, and verse 23 now transitions, as expected, to describe Divided Rome and its two main political powers or divisions (KON & KOS) (see more on Daniel's parallel prophecies).
- KON and KOS arise out of the divisions of a single realm - Just like the precedent established in verse 4 when the King of the North (KON) and King of the South (KOS) arose out of the divisions of Greece, so now the King of the North and King of the South arise out of the divisions of Rome. Verse 23 and 24 introduce the king of the north who then clashes with the king of the south in verse 25. Until a realm divides, there is central rule and thus only one king. If there is mention of two kings, then we know that we are in the divided phase of a realm (see more on the Precedents of Greece).
- Reference point is the realm itself - There were 10 main tribes into which the Roman realm (western half of empire) divided in 486 AD (Note: Prophecy follows the western half of the Roman Empire as the 4th realm. The eastern half gradually became a separate entity known as the Byzantine Empire). The two main forces that fought for the heart of the realm were the Franks and the Visigoths. Other tribes were allied with them (e.g. the Visigoths were allied with the Ostrogoths). Just like when the two main warring divisions of Greece became the KON and KOS, so now the two main warring divisions of Rome become the KON and KOS. The Franks were located more north of the Visigoths and they became the KON while the Visigoths became the KOS (see more on the Reference Point for Daniel 11).
486 - 508 (Franks vs. Visigoths) (Divided Rome Begins)
Daniel 11:23-24KJV; 23 And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people. 24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
NASB®: 23 "After an alliance is made with him he will practice deception, and he will go up and gain power with a small force of people. 24 In a time of tranquility he will enter the richest parts of the realm, and he will accomplish what his fathers never did, nor his ancestors; he will distribute plunder, booty and possessions among them, and he will devise his schemes against strongholds, but only for a time.
NLT: 23 With deceitful promises, he will make various alliances. He will become strong despite having only a handful of followers.
NIV: 24 "When the richest provinces feel secure, he will invade them and will achieve what neither his fathers nor his forefathers did."
"23 And after the league made with him [The Roman Empire entered into an alliance with the Salian Franks in 358 AD] he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people [The Franks were integrated into the Roman military and gained high positions, growing in power from small beginnings to become the most powerful kingdom in the Roman realm] . 24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province [Though the Franks could be crafty and treacherous, sometimes fighting against and sometimes alongside the Romans, as foederati the Franks entered the Roman empire peacably and settled on choice land]; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers [the Franks under Clovis achieved victory and unity that no one in his family had done before him]; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches [Frankish kings, unlike most kingdoms, dispersed their riches, land and rule among all of their sons]: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time [he will plot against fortified places during this time]."
The Roman Empire entered into an alliance with the Salian Franks ("league made with him") in 358 AD when emperor Julian made them foederati (ally) and allowed them to settle in Roman lands, making them the first Germanic people to permanently settle within Roman territory. The Franks were also integrated into the Roman military and gained high positions. They grew in power from these small beginnings to finally defeat the last western stand of central Roman rule and become the most powerful kingdom in the Roman realm ("become strong with a small people"). Though the Franks were sometimes fighting against and sometimes alongside the Romans, as foederati the Franks entered the Roman empire peacably ("He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province"). But, when central rule in the western Roman Empire was crumbling, the Frankish king Clovis conquered the last western stand of the Roman military at Soissons (486 AD). By 511 AD, he had largely consolidated his rule among the Franks, defeating his fellow Frankish kings through ruthless trickery. He achieved what no one in his family had done before him ("do that which his fathers have not done"). Because the Franks conceived the kingdom as private property, the power of the kings was based largely upon the lands that they owned. The kings would partition the land and spoils of their conquests between all of their sons, unlike most kingdoms, causing many partitions through the years, which Clovis also did when he died in 511 ("scatter [disperse] among them the...riches"). Clovis plotted and schemed to overtake the fortified cities of the realm for many years during his reign ("he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time"). The word "time" is not here interpreted to mean a year. The word translated to "time" (eth) is not the same word used in Dan. 7:25 for "time, times and 1/2 time" (nor in Dan. 4:16-32). It is used throughout Daniel to refer generally to the span of time or moment in time when something would occur.
Daniel 11:25-26KJV: 25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. 26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
"25 And he [KON - Clovis, king of the Franks] shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south [Alaric II, king of the Visigoths] with a great army [the Frank's attacked the Visigoths in 507 AD at the battle of Vouille]; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he [KOS - Alaric] shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. 26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him [Alaric's officers forced him to go into battle before the right time he planned], and his army shall overflow [the Visigoths were defeated]: and many shall fall down slain [many, including Alaric, were killed in a massive slaughter]."
Now that the KON and KOS are mentioned again, it confirms that the timing of this verse must be after a division in the realm has occurred. Otherwise, there is only one king, not one of the north and the south. So, this verse would be describing events that occurred sometime after 486 AD, when the Roman realm was divided into 10 divisions. This is consistent with the pattern established in verses 3-6 when the king of the north and the south arose out of the four divisions of the realm of Greece.
Clovis (lived 466 - 511, reigned 481 - 511) ("he"), king of the Franks (King of the North), attacked Alaric II (lived 460 - 507, reigned 484 - 507), king of the Visigoths ("King of the South") in the famous battle of Vouille in 507 AD. In addition to wanting to expand his territory and economic reasons, Clovis also, having become a Nicene Christian, likely saw opportunity to gain influence by liberating the Catholics from Arian Christian rule. The conflict brewed over several years ("stir up his power and his courage") before culminating at Vouille when Clovis (KON) defeated Alaric (KOS) ("he shall not stand"). Alaric was forced by his magnates ("they that feed...of his meat") to go to battle against Clovis prematurely, where Alaric and many others were killed in a massive slaughter ("many shall fall down slain").
The following quote by Procopius, a Byzantine historian during the 6th century, describes the way those around Alaric caused their own army's defeat and Alaric's death.
"But later on, when the power of the Germans [Franks] was growing greater, they began to think slightingly of Theoderic and the fear he inspired, and took the field against Alaric and the Visigoths. And when Alaric learned this, he summoned Theoderic as quickly as possible. And he set out to his assistance with a great army. In the meantime, the Visigoths, upon learning that the Germans were in camp near the city of Carcasiana, went to meet them, and making a camp remained quiet. But since much time was being spent by them in blocking the enemy in this way, they began to be vexed, and seeing that their land was being plundered by the enemy, they became indignant. And at length they began to heap many insults upon Alaric, reviling him on account of his fear of the enemy and taunting him with the delay of his father-in-law. For they declared that they by themselves were a match for the enemy in battle and that even though unaided they would easily overcome the Germans in the war. For this reason Alaric was compelled to do battle with the enemy before the Goths had as yet arrived. And the Germans, gaining the upper hand in this engagement, killed the most of the Visigoths and their ruler Alaric." 1,2As we've seen, all of the wars and events in Daniel 11 are the most significant events through time that affected God's people and the successive realms that ruled over them. Was the Battle of Vouille significant enough to warrant mention in Daniel 11? Historian Danuta Shanzer asserts that "...even though the battle was suitably commemorated in local venues, Vouille has received scant attention and little respect in modern scholarship. The present volume, however, rehabilitates the Battle of Vouille and establishes it not only as a miliitary milestone in the history of the Franks and their king Clovis, but as a crucial prelude to the rise of medieval and modern Europe."3 Shanzer concludes that Vouille is "one of the most pivotal battles in history" and had "lasting and significant consequences for the future course of history." 4
Daniel 11:27-28KJV: 27 And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed. 28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
NASB®: 27 As for both kings, their hearts will be intent on evil, and they will speak lies to each other at the same table; but it will not succeed, for the end is still to come at the appointed time. 28 Then he will return to his land with much plunder; but his heart will be set against the holy covenant, and he will take action and then return to his own land.
"27 And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table [Alaric and Clovis had met on an island in 506, ate and drank together and agreed to live in peace]; but it shall not prosper [Clovis still attacked in 507]: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed [the dispute would not resolve until during the 1260 years, 538 - 1798]. 28 Then shall he [KON] return into his land with great riches [as part of the conquest, Clovis conquered the Visigoth's capital at Toulouse and took the royal treasury with all of its wealth and famous ancient treasures]; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant [Clovis, rejecting Biblical Christianity, aligned himself with the papacy, becoming the first Nicene Christian king]; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land."
The Franks and Visigoths had multiple squirmishes during the late 490s. In 506, Alaric invited Clovis to meet for peace talks. They met on an island, ate and drank together and agreed to live in peace and friendship ("lies at one table"). But Clovis continued to have his eye on Aquitaine and the situation escalated. Theoderic, king of the Ostrogoths, also tried to promote peace talks and sent letters and ambassadors to the various parties involved. He finally threatened he would attack if Clovis didn't back down. But none of the peace talks averted Clovis' attack nor ended the conflict ("shall not prosper"). The dispute would not resolve until during the 1260 years (538 - 1798) ("for yet the end shall be at the time appointed").
The Time Appointed
This time period is mentioned several times in Daniel. In verse 35, it links this time period to the time of the persecution of the saints. "And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed" (Dan. 11:35). The time of persecution is established as 1260 years, from 538 to 1798, in Daniel's previous prophecies (as well as in Revelation). In applying this to verses 27 and 29, it indicates that the events revolve around the time just prior to 538 AD (verse 27) and after 538 AD (verse 29).
The wealth gained in this battle was worth noting in the verse. As part of the conquest, Clovis conquered the Visigoth's capital at Toulouse and took the royal treasury with all of its wealth and also famous ancient treasures into his possession ("great riches"). When the Visigoth's sacked Rome in 410, they had gained much wealth, including treasure from the temple in Jerusalem. Mention of this wealth is made in Procopius' account:
"Then they [Franks] took possession of the greater part of Gaul and held it; and they laid siege to Carcasiana with great enthusiasm, because they had learned that the royal treasure was there, which Alaric the elder in earlier times had taken as booty when he captured Rome. Among these were also the treasures of Solomon, the king of the Hebrews, a most noteworthy sight. For the most of them were adorned with emeralds; and they had been taken from Jerusalem by the Romans in ancient times."10The Holy Covenant
The "prince of the covenant", Jesus, was killed in verse 22. He had confirmed a covenant with many in Daniel 9:27. That covenant, established at so dear a cost, is now in verse 28 being undermined and hated by many, even officially by nations. In order for Clovis' heart to be against the holy covenant, he had to reject Jesus' death and ministry as outlined in the gospels. In verse 30 we learn that not only did he reject and abhor (have indignation against) true Biblical Christiantiy, but he studied and had regard for the papacy's substitute mediatorial system.
After the victory and capture of the treasure, Clovis returned to Tours in 508 ("return into his land"). In honor of the victory and to gain favor with a potential ally, Emperor Anastasius made Clovis honorary consul, and the Frank king was then called Augustus.11 Clovis became a Nicene Christian king in the divided realm of Rome, which set him apart. He rejected Biblical Christianity and promoted the papacy's version of Christianity ("heart shall be against the holy covenant"). This religious development in the realm was worthy of emphasis in these verses, which parallels right along with Daniel's previous prophecies.
Evidence of Clovis' conversion to catholicism can be seen in Clovis' actions after the battle. He ordered all captured Catholics to be released, and reconsecrated churches and priests for the catholic faith. He ordered a council, assembling bishops and promoting unity of faith, which was held in 511 as the Council of Orleans. The council granted the church great privileges and bound the church to the state. In the years 506 to 511, Clovis fashioned the Franks into a catholic nation.5
When the Franks defeated the Visigoths at the Battle of Vouille, the Franks continued to take over all of Aquitaine. But, they were stopped from expanding south to the Mediterranean or into Italy by threats of Theodoric and the Visigoth stand at Arles. Theodoric, who couldn't join the battle until 508, helped stop further advance. Even so, this decisive battle broke Visigoth and Ostrogoth domination in Western Europe and the future favored the rising Franks.
538 - 554 AD (Franks attempt to take Italy, settle for continued plans with papacy)
Daniel 11:29-30KJV: 29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. 30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
NASB®: 29 At the appointed time he will return and come into the South, but this last time it will not turn out the way it did before. 30 For ships of Kittim will come against him; therefore he will be disheartened and will return and become enraged at the holy covenant and take action; so he will come back and show regard for those who forsake the holy covenant.
"29 At the time appointed [538 - 1798] he shall return, and come toward the south [in 538, the Franks joined in the Gothic wars in Italy]; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter [this time they didn't win like they did before]. 30 For the ships of Chittim [navy from Cyprus, the Byzantines, who ruled Cyprus at that time] shall come against him [the Byzantines, the very power that had requested the Franks to help in the Gothic wars, had found the Franks actually wanted Italy for themselves and ended up defeating the Franks in 554 at the Battle of the Volturnus]: therefore he [KON] shall be grieved [the Frank's desire to rule in Italy, which they had schemed and worked to achieve for many years, was thwarted], and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant [the Franks defied Biblical Christianity]: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant [the Franks would find another way to control Italy by understanding the papacy's key position there and paying attention to them, thus following after those who were already defying Biblical Christianity, the papacy]."
Ships of Chittim
Chittim, or Kittim, was a name used in Bible times, which referred to Cyprus.6 Since Daniel 11 is a literal interpretation of a symbolic vision, it is not here introducing a new symbol. So, just like Edom (verse 43) refers to the area of Edom as understood in bible times, the "ships of Chittim" would refer to ships from Cyprus. The Byzantine empire ruled Cyprus from 395 to 1191 AD, which includes the timeframe of this verse, and were well-known for their mastery of the sea. They are here referenced as the "ships of Chittim", playing a major role in the story.
The Gothic Wars
In 535, the Ostrogoth and Byzantine wars began. Both parties appealed to the Franks for help, but the Franks had plans to exert their own claims in Italy and deceived both parties. Interestingly, it wasn't until 538 AD ("the time appointed" - 538-1798) that the Franks engaged in the war ("return, and come toward the south"). Seeking to expand his own kingdom, Theudebert I (son of Clovis and king of the Franks from 511-534), an ally of the Byzantines, secretly sent a Burgundian army to aid the Ostrogoths against the Byzantines in the siege of Milan in 538. In 539 they sent a large Frankish army that plundered northern Italy, and surprised everyone by defeating both the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines at the River Po in 539. Next, while the Goths were besieged in Ravenna (their capital) as the Byzantine fleet cut off supplies, the Franks proposed that the Goths divide Italy with them (which was refused). The Byzantines succeeded in restoring their rule in Italy by 540, but the Ostrogoths began to rally their forces and retake key areas. By 550 the Goths had created a navy of 400 warships to contest the Byzantine mastery of the sea and attempt to deny the Byzantines easy access to Italy. The Goths made a treaty with the Franks agreeing to let them keep the land they had seized. The Byzantines returned to retake Italy in 551 and defeated the inexperienced Goth fleet in the autumn of 551 at the Battle of Sena Gallica (the last major sea battle for more than a century). This began a series of Byzantine successes. After Narses defeated the Goths at the Battle of Mons Lactarius (552 or 553), the Franks attempted to take advantage of the situation and invade the recently reconquered Italian lands. King Theudebald of the Franks (son of Theodebert I) sent two Alamanni chieftains, Leutharis and Butilinus, to lead an army of 75,000 Frank and Alemanni soldiers to invade Italy. They took the town of Parma in 553, defeating the Heruli (allies of Ostrogoths), took central Italy in 554 and then continued south. The Franks aimed to make Italy part of the Frankish kingdom. However, in 554, Butilinus' army met the Byzantines in the Battle of Casilinum (aka Battle of the Volturnus) where the Franks were soundly defeated. This victory for Narses signaled the triumph of the Byzantines in Italy and the remaining pockets of resistance were subjugated over the next several years (554-562).
In 507, the Byzantines had asked the Franks to drive the Visigoths out of Gaul (11:25-28). In 537, the Byzantines asked the Franks to drive the Visigoth's close ally, the Ostrogoths, out of Italy (11:29-30). However, this last time it turned out differently because when the Franks did go south in 538 they would eventually lose because they ended up fighting against the Byzantines ("ships of Chittim"). The Franks wanted to claim Italy for themselves and when they went to the south again, they didn't have victory like they did before ("did not turn out the way it did before"). Instead, they ended up being driven back by the Byzantines ("ships of Chittim shall come against him"). Thus, the Frank's desire to rule in Italy, which they had schemed and worked to achieve for many years, was thwarted ("he shall be grieved"). However, they would find another way and would now focus on building up power with their ever-more important Italian ally, the papacy in Rome ("them that forsake the holy covenant"). When the Byzantines caused the Ostrogoths to withdraw from the city of Rome in 538, the Byzantine decree that made the papacy the head of the churches could be put into further action in the city of Rome, freeing the papacy to build up an independent state and becoming extremely influential. The Franks saw the developments and had regard for the papacy, understanding the papacy's position ("have intelligence with them") and knew that the papacy was the Franks' key to dominance in Italy and beyond.
554 - 1798 AD (the papacy)
Daniel 11:31KJV: 31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
NLT: 31 His army will take over the Temple fortress, pollute the sanctuary, put a stop to the daily sacrifices, and set up the sacrilegious object that causes desecration.
"31 And arms [strong ones, force, Byzantines] shall stand on his [the papacy's - "them that forsake the holy covenant"] part [Pope Vigilius requested the Byzantine emperor Justinian to issue the Pragmatic Sanction of 554, which officially put his laws into effect in Italy, making the papacy an integral component of civil government and the papacy's religion enforced], and they [Byzantines] shall pollute the sanctuary of strength [wound the heavenly sanctuary], and shall take away the daily sacrifice [divert attention away from Jesus' continual ministry in the heavenly sanctuary and to the papacy's earthly substitute system of priestly mediation and forgiveness], and they [Byzantines] shall place the abomination that maketh desolate [will establish the devastating revolt, or set into place the substitute mediatorial system of those who rebelled, the papacy]."
Just like the precedent in previous verses, the defeat of the Franks by the Byzantine-papal alliance signal that the focus has now shifted away from the Franks to the next power, the papacy ("them that forsake the holy covenant"). The papacy was propped up by state powers throughout the 1260 years. Initially the Byzantines were the main power that did this, as emperor Justinian desired to unify the empire with both religion and politics under his control.
The Pragmatic Sanction
Justinian's Pragmatic Sanction, issued in 554 AD after defeating the Ostrogoths and Franks, declared the eastern empire's final victory and outlined how Italy would be incorporated into the empire. Justinian's edicts and laws, which he had made and assembled for decades, were already in Italy by edict, but could now be enforced because of his victory. The decree stated:
"The laws, moreover, and the statutes included in our Code, which have long ago been sent into Italy by edict, shall be in force. The constitutions, too, which we thereafter promulgated, shall be published by edict, and shall be in force in the land of Italy from the time that they were made public by edict, so that the state being united by God's will, the authority of our laws shall also be extended everywhere."7Justinian was determined to unify the empire under his rule, politically and religiously. In order to do this he established the papacy's position, as the head of all the churches, into the framework of his government.
"Nothing could have made more plain Justinian's overpowering, personal commitment to maintaining the "orthodox" Catholic faith in every city of his empire. And the "orthodoxy" of Justinian was the basis of his claim, as Roman emperor, to universal rule." 8The Pragmatic Sanction was requested by the pope ("arms shall stand on his", the papacy's, "part"). The decree begins as follows:
"Upon petition of Vigilius, venerable bishop of ancient Rome, we have thought it best to make some directions which are for the benefit of all those who live in the West." 9In addition to the edicts already issued and now to be enforced, the Pragmatic Sanction also included additional laws:
- Magistrates would be chosen by bishops and chief men of each region (#12).
- Forced sale of private property for public purposes would be judged by bishops and the primates of each place (#18).
- The pope and the Roman senate were given control of weights and measures (#19).
The "sanctuary of strength" as a reference to the heavenly sanctuary, parallels Daniel's previous prophecies that go into much detail about the heavenly sanctuary. In Daniel 8:11-13, the sanctuary is cast down and trampled on, in conjunction with the taking away of the daily sacrifice. Here in Daniel 11, the sanctuary is wounded (polluted, stained), also in conjuction with the taking away of the daily sacrifice. The parallel in Daniel 7 is the blasphemous and persecuting little horn, after which the judgment scene takes place in heaven, a parallel to the cleansing of the sanctuary in Daniel 8.
The Placing of the Abomination That Maketh Desolate
In 554, by official decree, the papacy, a religious organization, was set up to operate within the framework of government in extraordinary ways. The Byzantine's did this in 554 when they retook Italy and issued the Pragmatic Sanction. The papacy's teachings offer an earthly system of priestly mediation and forgiveness. This is idolatry, an astonishing abomination, where a man (the pope) places himself in the place of Jesus. Jesus is our true high priest, in the true sanctuary in heaven, mediating for us continually. When the eastern emperor reconquered Italy and issued the Pragmatic Sanction, he set up the papacy's integrated role in government and thus he established this substitute mediatorial system by force of arms. The Bible describes this papal system as the "abomination of desolation" (11:31) (idolatry/unfaithfulness that devastates) and the "transgression of desolation" (8:13) (an astonishing revolt). This marked the start of the 1290 years (12:11), after which the damage done to Jesus' ministry in the true sanctuary by the revolt would be put right and the sanctuary would be cleansed (8:14).
In other words, by officially establishing the papacy, by law, as part of the structure of government, the Byzantines established the papacy's rebellion (placed the abomination that maketh desolate), which diverted souls away from Jesus' ministry (daily sacrifice), and instead pointed them to the papacy's substitute earthly system of priestly mediation, thus wounding the heavenly sanctuary ("sanctuary of strength").
Jesus, when speaking of the abomination of desolation in Daniel, revealed that the appearance of Roman armies around Jerusalem and the earthly sanctuary would indicate that its desolation was about to occur (Luke 21:20). When you see the abomination of desolation, it was time to flee (Matt. 24:15, Mark 13:14). In like manner, in the middle ages, when the Roman armies stood where they ought not, and got involved in spiritual matters or "surrounded" the church and interferred in Jesus' mediation in the heavenly sanctuary, then the desolation would be about to occur to the heavenly sanctuary ("sanctuary of strength"). Christians would then need to flee from fierce persecution for many years.
The 1290 years
"And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days" (Dan. 12:11).
A quick bit of math reveals that 554 AD, the year of the decree that established the rebellion of the papacy, plus 1290 years, equals 1844.
+ 1290 Years
= 1844 AD
Many have wondered why the prophecy of the 2300 days in Daniel 8 stands alone in pointing to 1844. Turns out it doesn't. Compare the two prophecies below:
Notice that both Daniel 12:11 and Daniel 8:13-14 tie together the taking away of the daily sacrifice and the abomination/transgression of desolation with a time prophecy. The time prophecy in Daniel 8, the 2300 years, ends in 1844. It would make sense for the time prophecy in Daniel 12:11, which is about the same events, to also end in 1844.
This is just one more piece to the prophetic puzzle that strengthens our faith in Jesus' promises. As we see these things come to pass it helps us to believe.
The "Daily" in Daniel 8
In Daniel 8:11-12, the "daily sacrifice" is also mentioned:
"Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered."
In this passage, the power being discussed, the "little horn", represents Roman realm as it passed into it's church-state, or papal-led, phase. In verse 11, Jesus' ministry of forgiveness and sanctification ("daily") and the place where this work is performed, the heavenly sanctuary ("place of His sanctuary"), is taken from Jesus ("prince of the host"). It isn't clear how this is accomplished until now in chapter 11. In chapter 8, we just know that these were taken away from Jesus (see ESV), and in verse 12, God's people ("host") and the ministry of forgiveness and sanctification ("daily") were given to papal-led Rome (see the NASB). Now here in Daniel 11, we learn how this was achieved as the Byzantines gave these to the papacy when they reconquered Italy, issued the Pragmatic Sanction in 554 AD, and enforced the papal substitute system by force of arms.
Daniel 11:32-35KJV: 32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. 33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days. 34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries. 35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
As seen in other prophecies, God's people are given into the hand of persecuting Roman church-state powers for 1260 years (538 to 1798 AD). This period began when the Ostrogoths withdrew from Rome in 538, leaving the papacy free to exercise its ecclesiastical dominance and establish its independence and influence on state powers. Many state powers participated in persecuting Christians and others who did not adhere to papal beliefs. The Byzantines set the stage for this largely in 554, but the Franks were already well on their way to similar behavior, which would spread throughout the rulers of the Roman realm. Many brave souls were killed with the sword and burned at the stake ("by flame"), put in prison ("captivity"), and persecuted through bribery and convincing others to kill them in order to get their property ("spoil"). Despite intense persecution, God's people ("they that understand") still spread the gospel ("instruct many"), including Columba's missionaries, the Waldenses, Albigenses and Hussites. Many fell and there was no one to help them. When Protestantism and the reformation became more popular, some joined through false motives and didn't really help the cause ("cleave to them with flatteries"), but perhaps gained advantages in areas where protestants ruled. God's people would endure this situation until the time of the end (after the "time appointed" - 538-1798). Note: The "time of the end" begins when the scattering of God's people ends and the ecclesiastical supremacy of the papacy ends (1798 AD - see Daniel 12).
Daniel 11:36-37KJV: 36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. 37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
Notes: In 752, the papacy began crowing emperors. The perception was that if a king wanted to be the ruler of a Christian nation, then he would need the blessing of the recognized leader of Christianity. The papacy could achieve success through threat of excommunication and releasing subjects from their oaths of loyalty.
During the reign of Pope Innocent III (1198 - 1216 AD), the most powerful pope in history, the title "Vicar of Christ" was claimed for the popes, after which it has consistently been used since.
The papacy is symbolized by the "stout horn" in Daniel 7. It is the horn that uprooted three of the other 10 horns on the 4th beast. This qualitifies it as a division of Rome and thus it is eligible to become a king of the north or a king of the south. However, the verses that describe the papacy, do not mention the KON or KOS. Verse 36 just mentions "the king", so the emphasis during the remaining 1260 years was not on warring kings/divisions but on the persecution of God's people and the blasphemy of the king that caused it.
Daniel 11:38KJV: 38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
NASB®: But instead he will honor a god of fortresses, a god whom his fathers did not know; he will honor him with gold, silver, costly stones and treasures.
So, the Papacy not only exalted itself in the religious sphere, but also in the political sphere. It convinced state powers to persecute its citizens and enforce religious laws for the 1260 years during its ecclesiastically dominant phase. But, it especially exalted itself in the political arena from 752 to 1299, during its politically dominant phase.
The papacy reached the apex of its power during the reign of Pope Innocent III. He exercised influence over Christian states and claimed supremacy over all of the realm's kings. He is known for increased involvement in imperial elections and for calling a council (the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 AD) to modify the law in furthering his power as the universal authority in the realm. Innocent issued the "Papal Decree on the choice of a German King, 1201," which he used to force the acceptance of his choice of the three men contesting to become emperor. In it he said
"it is the business of the pope to look after the interests of the Roman empire, since the empire derives its origin and its final authority from the papacy; its origin, because it was originally transferred from Greece by and for the sake of the papacy...its final authority, because the emperor is raised to his position by the pope who blesses him, crowns him, and invests him with the empire."12
Daniel 11:39KJV: Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
NLT: Claiming this foreign god's help, he will attack the strongest fortresses. He will honor those who submit to him, appointing them to positions of authority and dividing the land among them as their reward.
We now proceed to the time of the end, which is the emphasis of the angel's explanation. "I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days" (Dan. 10:14). The angel now unfolds to Daniel what would happen to Daniel's people ("thy people"), the jewish nation, during the time of the end (1798 to the Second Coming). (See more about interpreting "thy people" literally in Daniel 10:14.)
Continue to Daniel 11:40-45 >
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- 1. Procopius, History of the Wars, Books V. and VI., trans. H.B. Dewing, The Project Gutenberg. Retrieved December 18, 2021, from www.gutenberg.org/files/20298/20298-h/20298-h.htm, page 129.
- 2. There are some historians who doubt that this confrontation between Alaric and his commanders took place (The Battle of Vouille, 507 CE Where France Began, Edited by Ralph W. Mattisen and Danuta Shanzer, page 32).
- 3. The Battle of Vouille, 507 CE Where France Began, Edited by Ralph W. Mattisen and Danuta Shanzer, page IX.
- 4. The Battle of Vouille, 507 CE Where France Began, Edited by Ralph W. Mattisen and Danuta Shanzer, page XXII.
- 5. The Battle of Vouille, 507 CE Where France Began, Edited by Ralph W. Mattisen and Danuta Shanzer, page 148.
- 6. For more information on Kittim, see Dr. Michael Younker's presentation and Elder Brenden Valiant's presentation at the 2020 Daniel 11 Conference.
- 7. Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 554_IPS, fontesistrie.eu/554_IPS (last access: 01-01-2022).
- 8. The Rise of Western Christendom, Peter Brown, page 193.
- 9. Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 554_IPS, fontesistrie.eu/554_IPS (last access: 01-01-2022).
- 10. Procopius, History of the Wars, Books V. and VI., trans. H.B. Dewing, The Project Gutenberg. Retrieved December 18, 2021, from www.gutenberg.org/files/20298/20298-h/20298-h.htm, page 129.
- 11. The Battle of Vouille, 507 CE Where France Began, Edited by Ralph W. Mattisen and Danuta Shanzer, page 87-88.
- 12. Medieval Sourcebook: Innocent III (r.1198-1216): Letters on Papal Polices, Fordham.edu, http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/innIII-policies.asp.